carbon reduction

Spotlight on… carbon reduction asks what net zero means for the industry and outlines easy and practical guidance to support your decarbonisation journey.

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Reducing our carbon emissions has become one of the biggest issues for our generation. In this ‘Spotlight on…’ we ask what net zero means for the industry and outline easy and practical guidance to support your decarbonisation journey.

Introduction

Climate change and global warming has become one of the single largest threats to our planet and having dominated our headlines for decades, it is the defining issue of a generation. Many governments have declared a climate emergency, with more than 70 countries including the UK and Ireland, pledging their commitment to become net zero by 2050 as part of the landmark Paris Agreement. With energy consumption and carbon (CO2) emissions in the construction industry reaching an all-time high, how is the sector adapting to meet these legally-binding targets? In this ‘Spotlight on…’ we ask what net zero means for the industry and outline easy and practical guidance to support your decarbonisation journey.

The UK and Ireland construction industry is responsible for 25% of our total carbon footprint, generating 40 – 50 million tonnes of CO2 emissions annually. To put this into perspective, this is more than the total emissions from aviation and shipping combined. According to a recent survey conducted by the Considerate Constructors Scheme to more than 450 construction industry professionals, over 90% of respondents believe there is an issue with the amount of CO2 emissions produced by construction, with energy and fuel consumption seen as the main contributor. 83% of respondents believe the industry has the potential to significantly reduce its CO2 emissions, with over 60% feeling the sector is not doing enough to tackle the issue.

The outlook is even worse from a global perspective with the building and construction sector accounting for over 34% of energy consumption and 37% of CO2 emissions. With demand for raw materials predicted to double by 2060 (including some of the biggest contributors to CO2 emissions), and growing population and commercial demands putting increasing pressure on the industry, is it possible to make a difference to reduce CO2? What guidance is there to decarbonise and fulfil the Government’s commitment to become net zero by 2050, and how do we pave the way for greener, cleaner and more sustainable practices in construction.

What are the typical sources of CO2 emissions in construction?

From the mining and manufacturing of materials such as concrete and cement, to the management and eventual deconstruction of a structure, CO2 emissions can be found at every stage of a construction and engineering lifecycle.

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol framework provides a globally recognised classification to group sources of CO2 emissions at an organisational level.

Typical sources of CO2 emissions in construction are split into three scopes and include:

Scope 1 (direct): Emissions caused by an organisation directly; for example from running machinery and heating buildings.
  • Operational functions to light, heat, and power a site
  • Energy to operate machinery, equipment and generators
  • Construction waste and landfill
  • Maintenance of a structure during its lifetime
  • Demolition process
Scope 2 (indirect): Emissions generated indirectly when energy is produced on behalf of the organisation from a utility provider.
  • Energy purchased to operate and maintain a site and plant, such as gas, electricity, oil.
Scope 3 (indirect): Emissions produced from the supply chain and at a customer level.
  • Extraction and production of materials such as steel, aluminium and concrete
  • Transportation
  • Activity from across the supply chain
  • Waste management

 

What are carbon emissions and why does it matter?

Carbon emissions, often referred to as greenhouse gases, are generated by the release of CO2. Methane and others into the atmosphere. They are created by human activity, such as the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas), the impact of deforestation and the growth in landfill and waste disposal. CO2 radiates and traps heat from the sun and this has caused our planet to warm by +1.1°C in 200 years, disturbing the natural balance of our planet and resulting in an unprecedented change to the climate.

Impacts of global warming include (source: The United Nations):

  • Higher temperatures have increased heat-related illness and the spread of disease, damaged natural habitats through increased threat of wildfires, and reduced the earth’s ability to cool down by melting the polar ice caps.
  • Increased severity of storms which have become more frequent, devastating the lives of millions of people, destroying homes and communities, and causing huge economic loss.
  • Drought and scarcity of water which has threatened and destroyed crops, decreasing food supply and increasing the plight of communities who struggle for water.
  • Rising sea levels, hotter and more acidic oceans threatening coastal and island communities, endangering marine life and coral reefs.
  • Declining biodiversity where forest fires and extreme weather conditions have increased the prevalence of disease and threatened approximately one million species with extinction in the next few decades.
  • Shortage of food as climate change has compromised the yield of fisheries, crops, and livestock causing a rise in hunger and poor nutrition.
  • Increased health risks as air pollution, disease, extreme weather and forced population displacement has affected the mental and physical wellbeing of around 13 million people every year.
  • Poverty and displacement as extreme floods and water scarcity have forced millions of people to become refugees and into poverty.

What is the construction industry doing to tackle the problem?

Resources and initiatives

In the last decade there has been a surge in the number of resources and initiatives available to support greener practices in construction; the UK Green Building Council has published Net Zero Carbon Buildings: A Framework Definition, with principles to achieve net zero carbon. They have also created a Whole Life Carbon Roadmap which shows how industry can get to net zero by 2050.

The Construction Leadership Council have launched several initiatives to champion sustainability including: CO2nstructZero, a zero carbon programme identifying nine priorities for carbon reduction that align with the government’s 10-point plan, and a Zero Avoidable Waste Routemap to help manage construction waste and reduce landfill.

Part Z is an industry-proposed amendment to UK Building Regulations 2010 which would ensure that embodied carbon is assessed on all projects, as part of a comprehensive whole life carbon assessment.

Environmental assessment methods

BREEAM continues to influence greener more sustainable practices and is recognised by investors and contractors alike. In recent research conducted by the Scheme two thirds of respondents have worked on BREEAM or LEED certified projects. Similarly, many contractors have adopted the globally recognised ISO 14001 Certification in Environmental Management Systems to strengthen and audit environmental policies.

Standardised metrics

The project has begun to create the UK’s first Net Zero Carbon Buildings Standard which will be launching later this year to provide standardised metrics to demonstrate and verify net zero carbon buildings in the UK. Bringing together leading industry organisations including BBPBREThe Carbon Trust, CIBSEIStructELETIRIBARICS, and UKGBC, this is the first major collective step in supporting stakeholders throughout the decarbonisation of procurement, design, construction and operation of buildings.

There is a suite of European Standards that cover sustainability works for construction and infrastructure. These include methodologies for assessment of environmental performance (including carbon) at a building and product level.

Sustainable materials

Net zero targets have been a catalyst for innovation as investment in the research and development of sustainable greener construction materials grows. Contractors are exploring new uses for existing materials such as bamboo and evaluating new resources like sustainable low carbon concrete and production methods like 3D printing in reducing emissions from production, packaging and transport. Closed loop remanufacturing schemes are emerging, creating a circular economy by re-using products and transforming them into eco-friendly new materials. Furthermore, there’s been a growth in the uptake of recycled plastics and metals, reducing waste and landfill.

Manufacturers are now producing Environmental Product Declaration’s (EPD) to provide the environmental performance of a product. These are then used in whole life carbon assessment tools to assess which materials may have less of a carbon impact.

What are we doing to help support carbon reduction?

At the Considerate Constructors Scheme we prioritise the issues that affect our planet, championing sustainability, decarbonisation and the natural environment as one of the three pillars of our Code of Considerate Practice. We recognise the construction industry will need to play a significant role in helping achieve Net Zero by 2050 and are spearheading industry standards to help constructors minimise the impact of their operations, take considered steps to safeguard the natural environment and optimise the use of resources.

Our Scheme Monitors uphold standards and measure progress with Registered Activity, benchmarking initiatives and offering advice and guidance.

The Checklist also asks Registered Activity to optimise the use of resources, including minimising carbon throughout the value chain.

 

 

Law and legislation

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Law and legislation

The following law and legislation is relevant to helping address the issue of reducing carbon emissions.

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External resources

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External resources

Carbon reduction is a huge issue in the construction industry today. There are numerous organisations and initiatives committed to combatting this issue in the construction industry.

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Examples of best practice

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Examples of best practice

We are proud to support some of the most pioneering constructors in the industry who are taking a stand and making a real difference to minimise their environmental impact. Our Best Practice Hub contains a wealth of insights and exceptional examples of environmental innovation from across the country.

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Case studies

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Case studies

Be inspired by those across our industry who share their story and offer advice on carbon reduction in construction.

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What can you do?

Whether you are a contractor, supplier, manager or construction professional, we all have a duty to protect our planet and there are lots of ways you can make a difference to build a greener, sustainable industry.

Identify and monitor CO2 emissions and set targets

The first step to reducing CO2 emissions is to identify possible causes from a company and project level. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol framework as mentioned above is a useful tool to categorise, track and report on emissions and find opportunities to support a long-term carbon reduction strategy.

Workplace training and advocacy

To help achieve net zero targets, education, awareness and advocacy is critical. Once a strategy, tactical plan and targets have been set, ensure it is communicated across the company or project and regularly reported on. Create a benchmark of success and celebrate achievements to inspire other teams in the business and across the supply chain.

Drive change by increasing the skills and knowledge of staff through regular training and during site inductions, challenge traditional behaviours, and raise awareness with poster campaigns, toolkits and site events. Appoint advocates and champions of sustainability from the boardroom and throughout the business to promote best practice.

Assess energy use

One of the biggest ways to reduce CO2 emissions is to identify, monitor and evaluate the energy used onsite; from vehicles, machinery and equipment, to lighting, heating and site accommodation. Make positive eco-conscious choices:

  • Use biofuels, green/renewable energy to power equipment, machinery and vehicles, if not available look into hybrid-powered alternatives
  • Review alternative options to using diesel generators
  • Opt for low energy consumption tools
  • Switch off equipment and vehicles when not in use
  • Don’t overcharge tools
  • Reduce reliance on water supplies by harvesting natural rainwater onsite
  • Use low energy light fittings and switch off when not in use
  • Turn off heating when not needed

Waste reduction and material usage

Construction, demolition and excavation accounted for almost two thirds of the UK’s total waste. Reducing waste using the 3 R’s of waste management – reduce, reuse, recycle can make significant strides in reducing landfill and CO2 emissions.

  • Use sustainable materials that are less energy-intensive to produce
  • Explore the use of reused and recycled materials
  • Turn waste stone and concrete into aggregate
  • Send materials for recycling
  • Source materials sustainably and ethically
  • Buy local and reduce mileage and carbon footprint
  • Donate excess resources to charities for reuse
  • Agree buy-backs and take back with suppliers.

Encourage and support supply chain

Decarbonisation is a collective responsibility and every part of the construction industry has a part to play. With an average of 50-70 suppliers on a typical project, the supply chain is a big component of a carbon zero strategy. Adopt a green supply chain management approach, integrating environmental processes and ensure you have transparency of practices. Support suppliers with guidance, best practice and share training resources.

Conclusion

The Government’s commitment to achieve net zero by 2050 is an ambitious target and reaffirms the urgency needed to react. But in an industry that is still producing more CO2 than ever before, greater strides are needed to make an impact and tackle the issue head on.

According to the Scheme’s Carbon Reduction survey 2023, over half of respondents have never worked on a project that has successfully met a CO2 reduction target, and only 1 in 3 construction projects have used renewable energy on site. Over 85% of respondents agree there is not enough incentive for construction companies to reduce their CO2 emissions, with cost seen as the biggest barrier, and smaller firms struggling to remain competitive with more expensive greener alternatives. The Construction Industry Training Board (CITB) predict the construction industry will require 350,000 new roles to be created by 2028, to ensure the government’s commitment to achieving net zero by 2050 is on track.

These stark statistics suggest more work is needed to support a carbon free industry, a collective drive from contractors, designers, asset owners, manufacturers, industry bodies and across the supply chain, as well as at a policy and government level to promote investment in greener cost efficient initiatives.

The opportunity to transform the industry is huge; to develop low carbon materials, zero emission plant, sustainable practices and a new generation of eco-conscious champions to lay the foundations of a sustainable greener construction industry, we can all be proud of.

Further reading on this topic can be found in the References and Useful Resources section.

The Scheme will continue to update this page as new case studies and examples of how the industry is tackling climate change are identified. If you would like to share how your organisation helps to reduce CO2 emissions, please contact the Scheme by emailing enquiries@ccsbestpractice.org.uk.

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Examples of best practice

We are proud to support some of the most pioneering constructors in the industry who are taking a stand and making a real difference to minimise their environmental impact. Our Best Practice Hub contains a wealth of insights and exceptional examples of environmental innovation from across the country.

Ultra Low Carbon Concrete Free Blocks and Mortar

Published 19 February 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Green/renewable energy Lower embodied carbon content materials
CategoriesCarbon reduction Green/renewable energy Lower embodied carbon content materials

Cemfree Greenbloc is a high-density load-bearing concrete block, that delivers a bulk dry material density of 1850-2000 kg/m3. Made from class 1 aggregates and incorporating the Cemfree Binder, the blocks comply with H.S.E regulations and are manufactured to BS EN 77. By not using cement the product can achieve a CO2 reduction of up to 73% as well as a…

Solar and Hydrogen Powered Noise and Dust Monitors

Published 19 February 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Dust Green/renewable energy Noise
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Dust Green/renewable energy Noise

The remote location of the noise and dust monitors on this project required a power source to be installed. Solar alone would not be sufficient to power them and a diesel generator used finite fossil fuels, therefore they combined a hydrogen cell with solar panels to provide enough power to run the monitors 24/7. The hydrogen used can be created…

Site Energy Supplied by Battery

Published 19 February 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment

A Northvolt battery system has been used to power the site instead of a temporary power supply and/or generators. The site will have the following power requirement during construction: 2 x tower cranes, 3 x goods hoists 6 x cabins 2 x building of 8 storey and 6 storey requiring temporary electrics including lighting to allow areas. The local grid…

Gas Insulated Switchgear

Published 19 February 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesCarbon reduction Energy efficient plant and equipment

This contractor is building a substation for National Grid to develop the London Power Tunnels infrastructure. To support National Grid in its transition to Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) free solutions, they have on site 7 bays of its EconiQ 420 kV Gas Insulated Switchgear to enable the transmission of electricity over long distances while eliminating SF6, in addition to EconiQ 420…

Ultilow Tarmac

Published 15 February 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials
CategoriesCarbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials

Ultilow is a range of warm mix asphalts for more sustainable road surfacing that are manufactured and supplied at lower temperatures than conventional hot mix asphalts. As a result they offer significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions of up to 15% and typically around 8-10%. They also deliver a range of site safety and productivity benefits and no compromise on…

Utilising Heaters to Optimise Concrete Mixes in Cold Weather

Published 15 February 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials
CategoriesCarbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials

During winter when the weather is colder, you need to pour with a concrete with higher carbon content as this will allow it to cure correctly. By using heaters on slabs, this has allowed them to optimise concrete mixes. The goal is to be able to pour slabs using the summer mixes all year, therefore offering a carbon saving of…

Calcined Clay Concrete Mix

Published 15 February 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Assessment and approval of supply chain relating to carbon Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials
CategoriesAssessment and approval of supply chain relating to carbon Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials

On this development they are looking to reduce the carbon output of pouring concrete by utilising new mixes that are available from suppliers. They have recently used a new, very low carbon concrete which utilises higher blend cements with over 50% eCO2 reduction when compared to standard Portland cement (CEMI) concrete. It is essential to create strong lines of communication…

Scrubber Removal

Published 17 January 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of resources
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of resources

The scrubber was removed during the decontamination and demolition phase. It has been categorised as low level waste, and as a result will be taken to the LLWR. In line with the approved best available techniques (BAT) the method for disposal was to manually size-reduce the scrubber into smaller pieces and place it in a half-height ISO – playing a…

Pre-insulated Ducts

Published 17 January 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of resources
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of resources

This contractor collaborated with their M&E installer to bring pre-insulated ducts to site this meant they were ready for installation into the risers, this had an environmental benefit as it reduced the need for additional packaging, transport, and manufacturing costs. This helped them to positively impact the project’s environmental footprint by reducing carbon emissions, waste generation, and energy consumption. It…

Hydrogen Fueled Piling Rig

Published 17 January 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Energy efficient plant and equipment Green/renewable energy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Energy efficient plant and equipment Green/renewable energy

This contractor successfully introduced a dual-fuel hydrogen and diesel piling machine, installing four piles to a depth of 30 metres on the site. Using the piling rig for just 2 days, the rig saved 27 litres of diesel, which equates to a saving of 72kg of CO2. The rig, modified to operate from on-board hydrogen tanks, achieved 36% (average) displacement…

Electric Ready-Mix Concrete Mixer

Published 17 January 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Electric vehicles Energy efficient plant and equipment Green/renewable energy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Electric vehicles Energy efficient plant and equipment Green/renewable energy

This contractor used an all-electric ready-mix concrete mixer on their project, helping them significantly on their path to net zero construction. The mixer, created in partnership with Renault Trucks and TVS Interfleet, is the first of its kind to operate anywhere in the UK with zero tailpipe emissions. This mixer has the same average capacity as a conventional diesel vehicle,…

Carbon Reduction Toolbox Talk

Published 17 January 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Induction and training Workforce training
CategoriesCarbon reduction Induction and training Workforce training

This contractor has developed a specific Carbon Reduction toolbox talk for their workforce. This toolbox talk included practical tips and actions ranging from energy efficiency, waste management, sustainable transportation, and responsible procurement to employee and operative engagement as well as detailing the benefits of carbon reduction actions. To find out more, click the link below.

Bridge Lift

Published 17 January 2024 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of resources
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of resources

This contractor upscaled the vessel/barge crane to carry out the lift to eliminate the need for any dredging. The dredge site would have been at the location where two rivers merge. They looked the the impact both commercially and environmentally on the project and agreed that in order to reduce the impact of the works on the environment any further…

Reducing Water and Cement Use on Site

Published 7 December 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of resources Water saving measures
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of resources Water saving measures

This contractor is using Porotherm multi-cellular clay blocks, in place of the traditional concrete block, on this project. The clay blocks use a thin joint mortar system (1mm thick), and the interlocking vertical joints do not require mortar. This significantly reduces the amount of mortar required to lay the blocks – minimising water and cement usage on site and helping…

Prefabricated Frames Offsite

Published 7 December 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Modern methods of construction Offsite construction
CategoriesCarbon reduction Modern methods of construction Offsite construction

Utilising a BIM Model and clash detection, it was enabled for designers to design a frame which holds all the mechanical pipework and associated bracketry to be manufactured at low level and in factory conditions. This then allowed for frames to be delivered to site and be installed at high level using mechanical aids, which will prevent musculoskeletal injuries due…

Carbon Footprint through Emails

Published 7 December 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Monitoring and recording of resource usage
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Monitoring and recording of resource usage

An initiative was put in place to raise awareness around the carbon footprint within emails and how they can impact the companies overall figure. This initiative details where emails are stored, the best ways to deal with emails and how to respond to an email if necessary without contributing further to any carbon footprint. There is not a lot of…

Cabin Pump

Published 7 December 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy

This contractor has implemented Cabin Pump, which is a portable, powerful, and tough wastewater macerating system for temporary and portable buildings. This eliminated the need for the contractor to install an effluent tank in the ground that would need to be pumped out once a week via a lorry. This initiative over a 5 month period will save over 250…

Designing Out Waste

Published 6 December 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of resources Monitoring and recording of resource usage
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of resources Monitoring and recording of resource usage

This contractor are a small business with a workforce of three that install, repair and service ten pin bowling equipment. The company have taken steps to reduce the amount of its waste sent for recycling or to be disposed of to landfill. When repairing existing ten pin bowling equipment the company noted which items supplied by the original equipment manufacturers…

Instagrid One Max Power Station

Published 4 December 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Noise
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Noise

This contractor is using a battery powered power station that allows both 110v and 240v power to be supplied remotely, replacing traditional petrol powered generators. The unit is environmentally beneficial as it produces less carbon emissions than a petrol generator and negates any issues with transport of fuel or storage of fuel. The unit produces less than 10dB noise pollution…

Recycling Glass On Site

Published 4 December 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Circular economy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Circular economy

This contractor’s partnership with Saint-Gobain in the Glass Forever programme is a new approach to sustainable glass recovery. This initiative involves recycling glass directly from their construction sites to create new glass products. The process consists of several key steps to maximise the recovery of glass, including breaking and separating the glass, preventing contamination and storing it in specialised cullet…

Solar Powered Compound

Published 3 December 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment Green/renewable energy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment Green/renewable energy

The contractor implemented a solar powered compound with supplier which has led to a carbon reduction of 1tCO2e per week throughout the trial. This was considered so successful that they have maintained the use post-trial and will be implementing solar power where possible in the future in combination with other energy sources such as Hydrogen. The contractor helped to design…

Fibre Reinforced Plastic Bridge

Published 6 November 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Modern methods of construction
CategoriesCarbon reduction Modern methods of construction

In their efforts to reduce carbon on the project this contractor has researched various methods of bridge building and materials used. This has seen them now working with Janson Bridges to create a Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) bridge as the solution on the Tyn-y-Bryn project. Traditionally bridge construction consists of large amounts of concrete and steel which creates a large…

Drainage Kerbs made from Recycled Polymers

Published 6 November 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Circular economy Lower embodied carbon content materials Reduced use of single use plastics
CategoriesCircular economy Lower embodied carbon content materials Reduced use of single use plastics

The project is using drainage kerbs made from recycled waste polymers, packaging, freezer bags and single use plastic bottles. Using products made from recycled polymers ensures that a valuable resource is not sent to landfill or used as a fuel. A drainage kerb made from recycled waste polymers also has a lower carbon footprint than an equivalent concrete drainage kerb….

Deep Green Welfare Unit

Published 6 November 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Biofuels Conserve of energy Conserve of resources Green/renewable energy
CategoriesBiofuels Conserve of energy Conserve of resources Green/renewable energy

To move towards their Net Zero by 2030 goal, this contractor has deployed the Deep Green carbon-neutral welfare set up at their site . The unit is powered by an ultra-efficient solar panel electrical system with a back-up HVO generator, meaning the unit is powered by virtually 100% renewable energy and operates at a near-silent level. The unit also has…

Environmentally Friendly Floor Insulation

Published 10 October 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials
CategoriesCarbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials

A temporary church was erected for phase 2 of the works, when the Cathedral could no longer remain open. The floor insulation between the ground floor joists was specified as a mineral wool product. The contractor had recently been made aware of a natural, British made product that would perform to the required specification, but with far greater ‘green’ credentials….

Electric Piling Rig

Published 12 September 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment

The Area East team have implemented an initiative to align with producing a low carbon product, the electric piling rig. This uses less energy compared to the traditional model rig, however, is just as powerful. The rig is the only one of its kind in the UK and the only rig in the world to be connected to mains electricity….

Cathodic Protection to Reduce Carbon

Published 12 September 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon reduction

The project has saved 170 tonne of carbon and over 640 m3 of waste to landfill by changing the design and utilising cathodic protection of the existing structural steelwork, as suggested by the Principal Contractor. The original proposal was the removal and replacement of surrounding brickwork to treat the numerous steel columns. The system gives an unlimited design life to…

Air Quality Footprinting

Published 8 September 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Monitoring and recording of resource usage
CategoriesCarbon reduction Monitoring and recording of resource usage

Typically, on a construction site the only monitoring of air quality is through a 24/7 monitor with the aim of warning the project of any spikes in poor local air quality. This contractor has been working with an Air Quality Consultant, supporting them to build specific calculator tools that businesses can use to footprint particulate matter (PM10 &PM2.5) and NOx…

Workforce Carbon Toolbox Talks

Published 14 August 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Education Induction and training Workforce training
CategoriesEducation Induction and training Workforce training

Carbon can be used in a number of different ways on construction sites and while there is a vast amount of resources coming available for management level to look at strategy of reducing carbon on construction projects there is less available to bring the conversation to the general workforce. With a lack of toolbox talks aimed at the workforce which include…

Low Carbon Insulation

Published 26 July 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of resources Lower embodied carbon content materials
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of resources Lower embodied carbon content materials

This contractor is using STEICOflex, which is a low carbon insulation made from a flexible wood fibre insulation. Its excellent thermal properties help reduce heating costs and CO2 emissions and due to photosynthesis, STEICOflex also stores CO2: trees absorb CO2 during photosynthesis and the carbon stays in the end product. The product is also carbon negative as more CO2 is…

Ex Stock Gas Pipe used as Support Piles

Published 16 July 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of resources
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of resources

As part of the construction of the Canada Water Dock Boardwalk, instead of using new steel tubular piles to support the boardwalk, this contractor is using stock materials of gas pipe as support piles. This has negated the need to have new piles made, not only cutting down on costs of new steel but reducing the carbon footprint of the…

Battery Powered Small Boat

Published 12 July 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Energy efficient plant and equipment Identification of flora, fauna and natural resources Identify potential natural environment detriment Protect the local environment Protection of existing natural habitat Specialist input
CategoriesEnergy efficient plant and equipment Identification of flora, fauna and natural resources Identify potential natural environment detriment Protect the local environment Protection of existing natural habitat Specialist input

The environmental specialist on this project is active in the Dock assessing and reporting on the situation in relation to the wildlife and any factors that may have an impact, caused by the project. To enable the specialist to get as close to the wildlife as possible they have provided a battery powered small boat. The benefits of the boat…

Electric Crusher

Published 10 July 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Electric vehicles Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Electric vehicles Energy efficient plant and equipment

To reduce vehicle movements to and from site and improve their carbon footprint, this contractor has engaged with a supplier to use an electric crusher on site for the re-use of material. Noise, dust and vibration is at an absolute minimum in comparison to using a fully diesel generator operated crusher. To find out more, click the link below.

Material Passports

Published 3 July 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials Monitoring and recording of resource usage
CategoriesCarbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials Monitoring and recording of resource usage

A new method for carbon reduction in typically intensive new materials was implemented by this contractor, putting circular economy principles into practice. Materials Passports are digital documents that report everything you need to know about the building’s component parts to facilitate future re-use at a much-reduced carbon count. Taking waste from one project and using it as a resource for…

The UK Green Building Council’s Solutions Library

Published 18 April 2023 | One comment
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Climate change training Protect the local environment
CategoriesCarbon reduction Climate change training Protect the local environment

Solutions to the climate and ecological crises already exist, but they are often not common knowledge or widely applied. UKGBC’s Solutions Library provides a central resource to showcase solutions to shared sustainability challenges across the built environment. It intends to increase awareness of tried and tested solutions to promote their adoption and scaling across the industry. The Solutions Library features…

The UK Green Building Council’s Case Study Library

Published 18 April 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Climate change training Protect the local environment
CategoriesCarbon reduction Climate change training Protect the local environment

The UK Green Building Council’s (UKGBC’s) Case Study Library showcases built environment projects that demonstrate best practice and key learnings in one or more of the UKGBC impact areas: Climate Change Mitigation, Climate Change Adaptation, Nature, Resource Use and Health, Wellbeing & Social Value. The resource aims to foster greater understanding across the industry about the ways in which different…

Embodied Carbon Model

Published 18 April 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Measurement and publication of targets and performance Monitoring and recording of resource usage
CategoriesMeasurement and publication of targets and performance Monitoring and recording of resource usage

This contractor has created an embodied carbon model for the project at RIBA Stage 4, using OneClick LCA. The results show that the embodied emissions will be 727 kg CO2e/m2. As the project progresses, this model is being updated to reflect final quantities of materials procured, all environmental product declarations use on the project and final site emissions data. This…

Ampd Enertainer Batteries for Tower Cranes

Published 18 April 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment

This contractor hired three Ampd Enertainer batteries, to power three tower cranes. These batteries were initially trialled in Hong Kong and Singapore. Following their success, they came to the Olympia Redevelopment as the first deployment in Europe. To date they have saved over 19t of carbon, and are estimated to save 192t of carbon in one year. They are 32x…

Online Net Zero Diary

Published 13 April 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Climate change training Measurement and publication of targets and performance
CategoriesCarbon reduction Climate change training Measurement and publication of targets and performance

This contractor has made an online net zero dairy which is available to all via their website. This is the first construction diary which honestly and openly advises about their detailed net zero journey and where the business and wider industry are on the journey. The diary aims to share best practice but also highlight areas where the industry needs…

Measurable Energy Power Sockets

Published 13 April 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy

The welfare setup has been fitted with measurable energy sockets and fuse spurs for all power outlets. Measurable Energy equips facilities managers, building owners and occupants with real-time energy and GHG emissions monitoring, automated controls and data driven actions to avoid unnecessary carbon emissions and reduce costs. The smart sockets with machine learning capabilities eliminate small power wastage by reducing…

Electric Bondcoat Sprayer

Published 13 April 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment

A new electric road marker vehicle has bee used on the project, this new technology hasn’t been used on a site in the UK before. The vehicle reduces carbon emissions, as it takes less energy to heat material for operations as the material is sprayed at 75 degrees instead of 180 degrees for joint sealing. This Zero Emission Sprayer will…

Carbon Literacy Training

Published 13 April 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Climate change training
CategoriesCarbon reduction Climate change training

The contractor has developed and financed a construction-specific climate emergency training course in conjunction with three other contractors in Northern Ireland, Business in the Community and Keep Scotland/Northern Ireland Beautiful. This course helped attendees to make the link between their own lives and climate change, in addition to acquiring the knowledge to lower their carbon footprint, with typical realised carbon…

Calculating Individual Carbon Footprint on Site

Published 13 April 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon offsetting Climate change training
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Climate change training

This contractor has rolled out an environmental initiative on site, to allow all personnel to calculate their individual carbon footprint. A poster is available within the site compound, displaying a QR code that links users to the WWF Footprint Calculator. Those who scan the code can then complete a short questionnaire, answering relevant questions on their diet, travel and home…

Battery Powered Piling Rig

Published 13 April 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment

This contractor is the first company in the world to take delivery of Liebherr’s brand new innovative battery powered piling rig, the LB 30 unplugged. The North Quay site at Canary Wharf are the first site to use the rig which produces zero emissions. The rig has many environmental advantages, such as being quieter, zero carbon emissions, no affect on air…

XCarb Renewably Produced and Recycled Steel

Published 10 March 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials
CategoriesCarbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials

The contractor is using the lowest embodied carbon structural steel product available and is the first project in UK to use this. The steel comes with a cost uplift over other rolled steel sections. Wider uptake of this will help to significantly reduce the embodied carbon impacts of the built environment. To find out more, click the link below.

Using 3D Concrete Printing to Reduce Carbon Footprint

Published 10 March 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials Modern methods of construction
CategoriesCarbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials Modern methods of construction

This contractor has used 3D concrete printing to produce the capping beams for a sheet pile flood wall. The beams have a lower embodied carbon than traditional cast in-situ or precast concrete beams and therefore this has helped to reduce the site’s carbon footprint. Each beam is also bespoke, using 3D printing allows each beam to be made to the…

Electric Multi Service Vehicles

Published 10 March 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Electric vehicles
CategoriesCarbon reduction Electric vehicles

Electric Multi Service Vehicles (MSV’s) are being used as opposed to diesel or track-bound vehicles on this project. These vehicles will be used to transport segments for the TBM as well as people along the tunnels within the project. Electric (MSV’s) will help the contractor reach their ‘Diesel free by 2023’ status and they are aiming to become the leader…

Temporary Power Battery Supply Units

Published 16 January 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Energy efficient plant and equipment Green/renewable energy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Energy efficient plant and equipment Green/renewable energy

During the initial phase of works, a direct mains feed was not available for the welfare and site supplies, therefore a generator was required. To address planning constraints, nuisance to our neighbours and carbon footprint/emissions associated with large diesel generators, they considered the use battery supply units to operate primarily out of hours, but also to address inefficient running out…

Net Zero Partners

Published 16 January 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Measurement and publication of targets and performance
CategoriesCarbon reduction Measurement and publication of targets and performance

This contractor created an ‘Educating Our Supply Chain’ video on carbon reduction to support their business commitment towards Net Zero, which was publicised and shared with their key supply chain partners. A tailored launch session for their Net Zero Partners scheme was arranged and delivered to key subcontractors and suppliers to help prepare and align them with their commitments through…

Carbon Focus Group

Published 16 January 2023 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Communication Communication Involvement Local groups Workforce training
CategoriesCarbon reduction Communication Communication Involvement Local groups Workforce training

This contractor has established a ‘Carbon Focus Group’ to develop an inclusive approach to generating discussions at all levels in the company. The new focus group has already developed a carbon specific toolbox talk that has been rolled out on site to educate and inspire the workforce to think about ways of reducing carbon. A number of initiatives were discussed…

Rubber Modified Asphalt

Published 21 October 2022 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of resources Lower embodied carbon content materials
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of resources Lower embodied carbon content materials

This contractor coordinated with their road surfacing contractor, and construction material producer, to lay a 1755m2 area with a rubber modified asphalt. The product is an environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional asphalt. The mix uses end of life tyres which are converted into new roads and pavements, resulting in up to 5% lower CO2 emissions during production. The product is…

Basalt Concrete Reinforcement

Published 21 October 2022 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials
CategoriesCarbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials

Reinforcement bars are used as a tension device to reinforce and strengthen concrete in building structures. Basalt FRP (fibre reinforced polymer) was used in guidewalls instead of standard steel reinforcement bars. Basalt is a naturally occurring volcanic rock that provides similar strengths to steel reinforcement in the right applications. Basalt FRP is 5 times lighter than steel whilst providing similar…

Spotlight on… posters

Published 17 October 2022 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Carbon reduction Display CCS registration materials Mental health Modern slavery training Random substance testing Signage
CategoriesCarbon reduction Display CCS registration materials Mental health Modern slavery training Random substance testing Signage

Spotlight on… posters have been designed for general display in and around site welfare facilities. The Scheme has developed a collection of A3 posters from the series of ‘Spotlight on…’ learning toolkits. This resource has proven valuable for display on site and raising awareness amongst the workforce and visitors. To purchase these products, click here. To download a free electronic…

Wind Turbine – Low Carbon Technology

Published 23 September 2022 | No comments
Written by Lucy Wainwright
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Green/renewable energy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Green/renewable energy

As part of this contractors commitment to utilise zero carbon technologies, A wind turbine has been positioned on the project. The wind turbine is used to charge a battery which then distributes energy powering some of the sites temporary electrics. The plan moving forward on the project is to increase the number of wind turbines onsite to maximise this low…

Embodied Carbon

Published 10 September 2022 | No comments
Written by Lucy Austin
Categories Assessment and approval of supply chain relating to carbon Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials Measurement and publication of targets and performance
CategoriesAssessment and approval of supply chain relating to carbon Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials Measurement and publication of targets and performance

The embodied carbon for this prohect’s offices was calculated using BS EN 15978:2011 and guidance from RICS ‘Whole life carbon assessment for the built environment’. For the RIBA Stage 4 design, the embodied carbon to practical completion is predicted to be 904 kgCO2e/m2, showing performance to be well within the Greater London Authority benchmark of between 900-1000 kgCO2e/m2 expected for…

How to Cut Carbon On Site Video

Published 7 September 2022 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon reduction Communication
CategoriesCarbon reduction Communication

As part of this sites drive to reduce carbon in line with their 2030 and 2040 commitments, the site participated in avcarbon reduction group video, discussing previous innovations including Thermal Lightweight Aggregate. This video was originally been made available for internal use but has now been delivered and cascaded to their subcontractors working on the project and the wider contractor’s supply…

Hybrid Greener RC Frame Choice

Published 19 May 2022 | No comments
Written by Max Jadav
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Conserve of resources Modern methods of construction Offsite construction Prefabrication
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Conserve of resources Modern methods of construction Offsite construction Prefabrication

On this project the site boundary is the building boundary. To complicate building construction further two elevations, south and west, abut immediately to existing buildings. At a very early stage of the tender the contractor decided to change the designed 10 storey in-situ RC frame to a hybrid concrete frame. By changing all the vertical in-situ RC structural support elements…

Green Site Set Up with Huge Carbon Reductions

Published 19 May 2022 | No comments
Written by Anna Bennett
Categories Carbon reduction Green/renewable energy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Green/renewable energy

This project is a 6-story commercial development Swindon that consists of new office space and surrounding public realm works. As part of the site and office setup, the project team analysed the cost and carbon emissions of traditional items or services and their green alternatives. 12 ‘green’ proposals were evaluated which ranged from procuring renewable sourced energy to retrofitting site…

Wet Mix Stabilisation of Dredged Material

Published 5 May 2022 | No comments
Written by Alan Tully
Categories Carbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials
CategoriesCarbon reduction Lower embodied carbon content materials

The contractor developed a methodology to stabilise 6500m3 of wet dredged material (from the sea-bed) on site by utilising a modification of the existing ALLU system, using a site batched cementitious grout to mix with the dredged material to form a homogeneous mix that later cured into a weak concrete. The methodology ensured that this material could stay on site…

Heat Induction Paint Removal

Published 20 April 2022 | No comments
Written by David Carter
Categories Dust Noise
CategoriesDust Noise

This project used heat induction as an alternative to traditional grit blasting to remove existing intumescent paint from the structural steel frame. This method uses heat induction technology, similar to a heat induction hob, to break the chemical bonds between the intumescent paint and the steelwork, allowing it to be manually scraped off with minimal effort. The benefits of this…

Reducing Carbon Emissions from Welfare Cabins

Published 20 April 2022 | No comments
Written by Debra Colley
Categories Investigation for environmental events
CategoriesInvestigation for environmental events

Intelligent online tools can allow users to see what CO2, energy, and cost savings can be made by selecting environmentally friendly products. As many industries are now aware, the UK has signed into law, via the climate change act, that the country will be net-zero by 2050. This means that calculating your carbon footprint is a necessary step to understanding…

Decarbonising Communities

Published 27 January 2022 | No comments
Written by Anne Edwards
Categories Carbon reduction Specialist input
CategoriesCarbon reduction Specialist input

This contractors environmental policy states their commitment to minimising the impact of their activities on climate change and the communities in which they work. Each division implements ISO 14001 environmental management systems to ensure that they protect the environment; reduce waste and energy consumption; source construction materials responsibly; minimise disturbance; and train their employees and subcontractors on environmental issues and…

Low Carbon Asphalt

Published 27 January 2022 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Consultation Investigation for environmental events
CategoriesConsultation Investigation for environmental events

To reduce the CO2 emissions of traditional asphalt paving construction this company brought together two suppliers – one with a carbon negative aggregate and one with a cold foamed bitumen asphalt – to generate savings of up to 90% compared with a traditional hot AC20 asphalt mix. The mix was used to construct a new cycle path being built as…

Solar Panel and Lithium-ion Powered Noise Monitoring Stations

Published 13 January 2022 | No comments
Written by Darren Ruane
Categories Green/renewable energy Noise
CategoriesGreen/renewable energy Noise

On this project they are building a new offline bypass and are required to continuously monitor the noise of operations across the duration of the scheme, therefore seven Solar Li-ion powered Noise Monitoring stations have been installed during 2021. The monitoring equipment provides real-time data capture and trigger alerts via a customised web platform, enabling the construction team to be…

Eco Hybrid Lithium Welfare Cabin

Published 13 January 2022 | No comments
Written by Beth Miles
Categories Conserve of energy
CategoriesConserve of energy

On this project they received the new Eco Hybrid Lithium welfare cabin with increased lithium battery capacity. These mobile eco welfare units use smart Lithium Hybrid technology for silent green running, as well as a smart water system. The next generation units will also use rainwater harvesting to bolster the smart water system and telemetry to fully enable usage and diagnostics…

P-DfMA (Platform for Design, Manufacture and Assembly)

Published 20 December 2021 | No comments
Written by Bruce Nixon
Categories Prefabrication
CategoriesPrefabrication

This project is the world’s first large scale office building designed and constructed using the ‘kit of parts’ solution built on a P-DfMA structural frame. The platform system, known as P-DfMA (Platform for Design, Manufacture and Assembly), consists of a set of components that can be efficiently combined to produce highly customised structures. The system is based on repeatable processes…

Site Accessibility and Keeping up with the Electric Vehicle World

Published 24 November 2021 | No comments
Written by Simon Redgrave
Categories Electric vehicles Parking facilities/arrangements
CategoriesElectric vehicles Parking facilities/arrangements

With more visitors and local authority clients coming to this project it is important that they ensure we cater for all with accessible parking, meeting rooms and toilets. Additionally with the increase of electric and hybrid vehicles, they now offer a free ‘top up’ for visitors car while they are at the project.

Off Site Prefabricated Reinforcement

Published 24 November 2021 | No comments
Written by Philip Kissane
Categories Offsite construction Prefabrication
CategoriesOffsite construction Prefabrication

On this project they have designed and fabricated off site reinforcement sections for the super flat specialised concrete ground floor slabs of a warehouse. This system consists of a prefabricated roll out bottom matt of reinforcement along with prefabricated top matt sections complete with u-bars around the edges and highchairs attached ready to be installed onto the roll out bottom…

Electric Plasterboard Lift Truck

Published 24 November 2021 | No comments
Written by Bruno Tiosso
Categories Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesEnergy efficient plant and equipment

On this project they are using an Electric Plasterboard Lift Truck to unload plasterboard. The truck makes the delivery process faster, allowing efficient usage of site delivery area, reduces manual handling as the plasterboard will be unloaded using a truck mounted forklift and placed on the electric lift truck. This is then taken up in the car hoist and finally…

Cement Free Concrete Piling Platforms

Published 24 November 2021 | No comments
Written by Harry James
Categories Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon reduction

When installing piles, a piling mat needs to be created, which is a temporary working platform designed to provide a reliable and stable surface on which piling rigs and other ground treatment machinery can operate. The traditional method of installing a pile mat is to use a 1m layer of compacted granular material. However, when piling rigs travel along this…

Engaging Supply Chain on Science Based Carbon Reduction Targets

Published 9 November 2021 | No comments
Written by Callum Scott
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction

This contractor has made a significant commitment to sustainability by taking the crucial step towards a low-carbon economy and signing up to the Science Based Target initiative (SBTi). The business is only the second UK construction company to have targets approved by the SBTi and officially aligned with global demands to tackle climate change. Part of this commitment is to…

Zero Emissions Electric Crane

Published 9 November 2021 | No comments
Written by Laura Benjamin
Categories Electric vehicles Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesElectric vehicles Energy efficient plant and equipment

This contractor is using the new Liebherr LR1160E Electric crane on their Canterbury Works Vent shaft site. This site requires the utilisation of a crane for a large portion of the works. There are two options for this requirement which are the HSC SCX1500A-3 Diesel Crane and the Liebherr LR1160E Electric Crane. The comparisons between these cranes can be seen…

Eco-Tower Lights

Published 25 October 2021 | No comments
Written by Olubukola Olose
Categories Conserve of energy Green/renewable energy
CategoriesConserve of energy Green/renewable energy

This project is required to reduce its embodied carbon by 10% and contribute to the companies Carbon Strategy of Zero Carbon by 2050. One initiative put in place by the project team was Eco-Tower (VT-Hybrid lights) which have been used for access and temporary works lighting as against the traditional diesel engine tower lights. The Eco Tower Light is highly…

First Fossil Fuel-Free Major Property Estate

Published 16 August 2021 | No comments
Written by Joshua Davies
Categories Carbon reduction Green/renewable energy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Green/renewable energy

This project is set to be the UK’s first fossil fuel-free major mixed-use property estate, all eight buildings across the development will be powered by electricity derived from renewable resources, producing zero emissions in operation. Features of the Fossil Fuel-Free Mixed-Use Estate: All buildings across this estate will be electric and use air source heat pumps. The first on this…

Folding Bikes for the Project Team

Published 2 August 2021 | No comments
Written by Lynne Potter
Categories Exercise Wellbeing events
CategoriesExercise Wellbeing events

To aid in getting the project team back on site safety during the coronavirus restrictions where feasible and allowed, they bought twenty folding bikes for the team to use. This allowed for the team to travel some or all of their journey to and from work by bike and therefore avoiding public transport which was more congested and presented more…

Electric Screed Pump

Published 2 August 2021 | No comments
Written by Lynne Potter
Categories Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesEnergy efficient plant and equipment

There is some speculation that because plant is electric that it won’t perform as well, so awareness is currently an issue. This contractor couldn’t find clean tech readily in the UK and looked into the European market to find solutions and therefore went to Germany and met with BMS and have since partnered with them and had a number of…

Carbon Offsetting Incentives

Published 2 August 2021 | No comments
Written by Matthew Hugo
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction

This contractor is trying to create a more environmentally and carbon aware workforce through a number of different schemes. Seminars are a good way to do this however, they have found the best way is through incentives. By incentivising carbon offsetting through their employee of the month programme, they are creating a culture that is more aware of the carbon…

Carbon Neutral Project

Published 5 July 2021 | No comments
Written by Kieran Doona
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction

This project achieved carbon neutral status by registering with the ‘One Carbon World’ Scheme, working out its carbon footprint and purchasing carbon credits at a discounted rate. The carbon credits are then used in support of tree planting on a Rainforest Alliance validated sustainable forestry project. One Carbon World is a carbon neutral not-for-profit organisation and a global resource partner…

Sustainability Research and Development Programme

Published 29 June 2021 | No comments
Written by Hannah Crawford
Categories Consultation Investigation for environmental events Involvement Specialist input
CategoriesConsultation Investigation for environmental events Involvement Specialist input

This contractor has been working in partnership with Queen’s University Belfast to support academic research opportunities associated with the university’s Leadership for Sustainable Development MSc course. The Research and Development Programme has produced a number of diverse research projects surrounding sustainability, which are both utilised by the company and help to fulfil the MSc degree requirements. In 2020, the research…

Sustainable PPE

Published 16 June 2021 | No comments
Written by Alice Mann
Categories PPE
CategoriesPPE

On this project they have been part of a trial to determine if they can swap to sustainable PPE. Five members of the team have trialled sustainable workwear in efforts to ‘green up’ the supply chain. Items of PPE that have been a part of the trial include soft shell jackets and boots made from recycled plastic bottles, glasses made…

GIS Isochrone Mapping

Published 24 May 2021 | No comments
Written by Tom O'Reilly
Categories Investigation for environmental events
CategoriesInvestigation for environmental events

At this contractor, typically the decision to select a waste management company will be determined by which member of the supply chain has put themselves forward to cover a certain postcode area. Whilst location is generally the main factor behind a waste companies decision to provide their service in a select area, many are happy to travel significant distances which…

Carbon Offsetting for Individuals

Published 29 March 2021 | No comments
Written by Aimee Nicol
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction Education
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction Education

Whilst delivering a virtual work experience programme with 24 young people, the contractor asked them to calculate their carbon footprint as part of a sustainability exercise in the course. In this task those on work experience calculated their carbon footprint from their daily total food emissions and their carbon footprint to find their total annual carbon footprint. The contractor is…

Plastic Free Recyclable Office Desks

Published 16 March 2021 | No comments
Written by Emily Bailey
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction

This fully recyclable office desk helps construction site accommodation to address the landfill impact of temporary offices with a totally recyclable option, making use of recycled materials. The ECO360® desk gives a saving of approximately 38kg CO2e compared to traditional MFC (Melamine-Faced Chipboard) and steel products. The work surface which used to be acrylic plastic based has been replaced with…

Tree Planting Project for Social Media Followers

Published 8 March 2021 | No comments
Written by Lucie Jones
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction

To celebrate their EnviroHoard™ system being Net Zero Carbon Verified this company have committed to a tree planting project ‘Let’s Plant A Forest Together’ where for every new follower on the company’s social media page a tree will be planted. Net Zero Carbon, also known as carbon neutrality, requires a detailed carbon footprint assessment, in accordance with international standards. Once…

Earth Friendly Concrete

Published 8 March 2021 | No comments
Written by Patrick Smith
Categories Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon reduction

Earth Friendly Concrete (EFC) is traditional concrete that doesn’t use ordinary Portland cement (OPC). EFC uses a geopolymer binder system made from the chemical activation of two industrial waste byproducts – blast furnace slag and fly ash. This alternative binder can reduce the carbon emissions associated with OPC by up to 90%. The engineering and construction properties of EFC are…

Net Zero Carbon Challenge

Published 1 March 2021 | No comments
Written by Katerina Papavasileiou
Categories Carbon reduction Education Induction and training Involvement Local groups
CategoriesCarbon reduction Education Induction and training Involvement Local groups

The Net Zero Hackney Challenge was a programme, developed by the project team aiming to educate young people about net zero carbon and provide opportunities to the younger generation to enter the construction industry. This programme contributed to the efforts to improve social mobility in the borough by creating opportunities for further training, placements, work experience and mentoring. The net…

Carbon Reduction

Published 11 January 2021 | No comments
Written by Paul Watkins
Categories Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon reduction

Morgan Sindall as a company and a leader in tackling Environmental issues are going to introduce an internal carbon charge. The output of most projects can be calculated with the existing carbon calculator tool, which works out how much is generated throughout a projects lifecycle. Each division will pay a charge per tonne of carbon they generate which will paid…

Signing up to the SteelZero Initiative

Published 21 December 2020 | No comments
Written by Darren Peck
Categories Carbon offsetting Involvement
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Involvement

Steel is the world’s most widely used material – but despite technologies existing for production to be decarbonised, steelmaking is currently one of the biggest emitters of CO2 globally. Organisations that join SteelZero make a public commitment to procure 100% net zero steel by 2050. By harnessing their collective purchasing power and influence, we’re sending a strong demand signal to…

132kV Cable Protection Measures

Published 24 August 2020 | No comments
Written by Rachael Finlay
Categories Carbon offsetting
CategoriesCarbon offsetting

Our works on the Glasgow Airport Investment Area (GAIA) project involved providing protection measures to a series of fragile high voltage (132kv) cables which one of our new roads has to cross. Preliminary proposals for the protection measures involved a series of steel-reinforced concrete beams spanning an array of reinforced concrete piles. This solution was highly carbon-intensive, and the asset…

Net Zero Carbon Site

Published 8 April 2020 | No comments
Written by Lucy Austin
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction Environmental/sustainability policy Promoting achievements
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction Environmental/sustainability policy Promoting achievements

Sir Robert McAlpine are preempting legislative changes by pledging Net Zero Carbon by 2024. Contributing to this, Battersea Phase 3a has been operating as a Net Zero Carbon site since January 2020. The project Net Zero Carbon strategy covers all operational emissions (gas, fuel and electricity on site) and involves offsetting 115% of our outputs. Our offsetting occurs both locally…

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Speed Cameras

Published 8 April 2020 | No comments
Written by Gino Salvatore
Categories Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesConserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment

As part of the traffic management system for the construction of a new grade separated junction on the A1 to the west of Grantham, a 50-mph speed limit is in place. This speed limit is enforced using remote speed cameras powered by a combination of solar panels and hydrogen fuel cells. This combination is noiseless in operation and omits no…

Cleaner Construction for London

Published 8 April 2020 | No comments
Written by Lucy Austin
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction Energy efficient plant and equipment

Following the results of a recent Non-Road Mobile Machinery audit, Battersea Phase 3a was chosen for inclusion in the Greater London Authority’s new air quality campaign, Cleaner Construction for London. The campaign selected our project as a flagship to help promote exceptional emission standards operating in London to the wider UK, and international construction industry. The purpose of this is…

Air Quality Particle Detecting Meter

Published 8 April 2020 | No comments
Written by Costas Petrides
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction Dust
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction Dust

This portable handheld air quality particle detecting meter is used to monitor particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the air. It also measures air temperature and relative humidity. PM values ​​are colour coded and this visual system makes for easy recognition if PM levels become high. Dust particles that measure at 2.5 and PM10 can settle in our lungs, and the…

One Planet Living Participation

Published 16 March 2020 | No comments
Written by Aaron Hackett
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction Conserve of energy
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction Conserve of energy

The One Planet Living framework aims to conserve the earth’s resources and tackle the emerging climate and ecological crisis. Integrating sustainability into construction projects is key to achieving this. For this reason, One Planet living has been adopted and promoted onsite in Bonham Quay. A number of commitments have been made by the site in the areas of: Health and…

Sharing Passivhaus Knowledge

Published 9 March 2020 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Training plans
CategoriesTraining plans

Kier’s St Sidwells Point project has been designed to the Passivhaus standard. This means that once finished, the leisure complex will use significantly less energy for heating and cooling than an average building of similar size and facilities. In order to share industry knowledge, the development team and principal contractor has integrated the design and construction processes within a training…

Eco Welfare

Published 9 March 2020 | No comments
Written by Victoria Chater-Lea
Categories Canteen Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Specialist laundry/cleaning requirements Toilets
CategoriesCanteen Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Specialist laundry/cleaning requirements Toilets

Typically, mobile welfare facilities on site are powered by diesel generators and generate carbon emissions when in use. The mobile eco welfare cabin used on one of the projects at Ferrovial Agroman’s Heathrow site uses a hybrid diesel and solar system resulting in much lower carbon emissions. Roughly, 88% of the time the welfare cabin is in use, it runs…

Earning the Carbon Literacy Trust Accreditation

Published 24 February 2020 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy

Galliford Try have been accredited as a Carbon Literate organisation by the Carbon Literacy Trust. Carbon Literacy is defined as ‘An awareness of the carbon costs and impacts of everyday activities and the ability and motivation to reduce emissions, on an individual, community and organisational basis’. Accreditation was achieved by delivering a training programme to their staff and supply chain…

Solar Welfare Van

Published 24 February 2020 | No comments
Written by James Morfitt
Categories Conserve of energy
CategoriesConserve of energy

The Leeds projects have incorporated the latest Nixon Hire solar welfare van. The welfare van is environmentally friendly by offering: Solar Panels Low CO2 Emissions Silent run time Less oil use With such a large fleet of vans available, it made sense for us to investigate how solar power could reduce emission output and increase the efficiency of the vehicle’s…

Use of Electrical Powered Vehicle

Published 24 February 2020 | No comments
Written by Emma Gibson
Categories Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesEnergy efficient plant and equipment

The project team delivering the fit-out of units at Skypark in Glasgow City Centre, use an Electrical Powered Vehicle for transporting materials, tools and personnel around the site. This is environmentally friendly as it is electric and is charged on site. It is also beneficial for looking after the workforce by transporting their tools to the working area.

Prototype Pyrolysis Plant

Published 10 February 2020 | No comments
Written by Trish Schroeder
Categories Environmental/sustainability policy
CategoriesEnvironmental/sustainability policy

This company has a policy to bring environmental/ecological benefit to the area and natural environment whenever appropriate. The Environment Agency have announced that they will be classifying all demolition wood arising from projects as “hazardous waste” with effect from July 2020, unless proven otherwise. The company know this will create a real problem for the demolition and construction industry, so…

Carbon Management in Infrastructure Projects

Published 3 February 2020 | No comments
Written by Bekki Lancaster
Categories Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon reduction

Ferrovial Agroman has recently achieved PAS 2080:2016 certification through Heathrow Projects, the world’s first specification for managing whole-life carbon in infrastructure. The infrastructure sector is responsible for a significant amount of carbon emissions annually, with the UK Government setting ambitious reduction targets, it is essential to implement a framework for evaluating and managing carbon across the whole infrastructure value chain….

Time Clock Controlled Mains Water Supply

Published 3 February 2020 | No comments
Written by Patrick Smith
Categories Water saving measures
CategoriesWater saving measures

The City Gate House project team installed a series of water efficiency measures (as part of the temporary services package) to reduce water consumption during construction. This included a time clock control on the mains site water meter, with a solenoid valve switching off the water supply to the entire site during non-working hours. This eliminates the risk of leaks…

Low Emission Micro Turbines

Published 6 January 2020 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesConserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment

On their White City Living project, St James have been using modular micro turbines as a semi-permanent power supply. This power supply emits low levels of NOx emissions and high levels of oxygen (17 -18% oxygen rich). It is compliant with the EU’s Medium Combustion Plant and Non-Road Mobile Machinery Directives which regulate harmful emissions. It also goes beyond compliance…

Cardboard Tree Guards

Published 6 January 2020 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Protect the local environment Waste management
CategoriesProtect the local environment Waste management

The HS2 project aims to plant up to seven million trees along their Phase One Route. An issue presented by this aim is the amount of plastic tree guards that will be needed. Fusion have estimated that 39,000 tree guards will be used between October 2019 to March 2020. Due to the amount of plastic that may end up in…

Electric Forklift Truck

Published 6 January 2020 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesEnergy efficient plant and equipment

On their White Rose View project, RG Group have been using an electric forklift truck. This is charged via solar panels which are placed on an area of green space within the site. The electric forklift truck has been on site for a number of months now and will remain until the project is complete.

Trees for Life

Published 17 December 2019 | No comments
Written by Raffaella Puricelli
Categories Carbon offsetting Landscaping
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Landscaping

The Urmston Leisure Centre team planted 45 trees with the carbon offsetting initiative Trees for Life. The Committee on Climate Change (CCC) recommends 30,000 hectares of woodland should be planted every year in the UK, and this may even need to rise to 50,000 hectares if other carbon reduction targets are not achieved. Planting trees helps to tackle climate change,…

Driving Green Construction with Electric Cars and Hybrid Plant

Published 2 December 2019 | No comments
Written by Jerome O'Sullivan
Categories Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesEnergy efficient plant and equipment

As part of our ISO50001:2018 certified Energy Management System, Roadbridge is rolling out full battery powered electric vehicles (EV) and the supply of smart EV charging points across our larger construction sites and Regional Offices in Ireland. The installed Smart EV charger points (supplied by Gocharge.ie) have the ability to instantly respond and use less power if the grid becomes…

SmartWaste

Published 11 November 2019 | No comments
Written by James Morfitt
Categories Water saving measures
CategoriesWater saving measures

At John Sisk & Son, we use a web based platform called SmartWaste, which enables all of our projects to measure, report and manage waste generated on our construction sites, whether these waste materials are retained, re-used on site, or sent for recycling/ processing. Site Managers and Environmental Managers will understand exactly what waste materials are being generated from project…

Carbon Footprint Offset

Published 4 November 2019 | No comments
Written by andrea lilly
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction Conserve of energy
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction Conserve of energy

P&W have estimated the carbon footprint for the Burnholme Care Home using data from a previous but very similar project to construct a 59 bed care home. Our target was a reduction of the estimated 184 tonnes of CO2 used at our Hedon project. How Welfare units include the following features – push taps, PIR lighting, timed heaters Turn off…

Offset Earth

Published 21 October 2019 | No comments
Written by Amy Barlow
Categories Carbon offsetting
CategoriesCarbon offsetting

Following on from the Spotlight on… plastics and packaging learning toolkit and given the current climate emergency, along with the mhttps://staging.ccsbestpractice.org.uk/spotlight-on/spotlight-on-plastics-and-packaging/edia coverage of the climate strikes and Greta Thunberg’s iconic speech at the UN Climate Action Summit in New York last week, BCR decided to look into carbon offsetting through tree planting schemes and we came across Offset Earth. Offset…

Carbon Neutral REGO Green Energy Tariff

Published 15 October 2019 | No comments
Written by Magdalena Andres
Categories Carbon offsetting Green/renewable energy
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Green/renewable energy

All CVB sites and offices have switched to a carbon neutral “Renewable Energy Guarantee of Origin” (REGO) backed energy supply. REGO certificates certify that the energy supplied has been produced from 100% renewable sources (wind, solar, geothermal, tidal, etc. and does not include nuclear). Procuring electricity though a REGO certified tariff enables CVB to report zero emissions for Greenhouse Gas…

Use of Local Resources Policy

Published 15 October 2019 | No comments
Written by Amy Barlow
Categories Products sourced locally
CategoriesProducts sourced locally

We have produced a ‘Use of Local Resources’ policy to outline our stance on investing within the local community that we are working in. The policy has been included within our policy handbooks and is displayed on all of our sites. Contributing to the local community will create goodwill and using local suppliers can leave a lasting positive impression. Residents…

Alternative Power Source for Site Compound

Published 11 October 2019 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Post completion impact report
CategoriesPost completion impact report

For the duration of the project, the site has established a site compound, welfare area and site offices on Endeavour Wharf within the tourist centre of Whitby. The compound’s power supply is a mains connection of approximate 56kVA capacity which provides a stable, reliable supply of energy and has the added benefit of reducing noise and carbon emissions compared to…

Solar Pod Generator

Published 23 September 2019 | No comments
Written by Charlotte Ross
Categories Carbon reduction Conserve of energy Noise
CategoriesCarbon reduction Conserve of energy Noise

At Berkeley West Thames in Southall, we are committed to lowering emissions from our activities on site. As such, we encourage all our trade partners to strive towards our carbon objectives and targets. To this effect, FM Conway have brought to site a solar generator, the Autosmart Solar Pod, to power their welfare cabins. The Solar Pod charges batteries all…

Machine Learning Platform

Published 16 September 2019 | No comments
Written by Olivia Hack
Categories Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon reduction

Accurately capturing and recording data on construction sites can be a challenge. Human error, a lack of understanding or misjudgement means certain components are able to slip the net. Combining this with ensuring 100% of materials on site are certified and fully meet project requirements makes this a high-risk variable for any project. A Machine Learning Platform, (QFlow) has been…

Zero Carbon Satellite Welfare Cabins

Published 10 September 2019 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Carbon offsetting Conserve of energy
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Conserve of energy

Zero carbon satellite welfare cabins are helping to lower the project’s carbon footprint. Instead of the traditional diesel units, solar PV panels on the roof generate sufficient power to charge the batteries and a hydrogen fuel cell provides a backup. This is their first use on a Highways project and the initial trials of two cabins have proved very successful….

Roadmender Pothole Repair Machinery

Published 10 September 2019 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Conserve of energy
CategoriesConserve of energy

The site is using Roadmender pothole repair machinery which eliminates the need to take material to the tip through reusing it. The repair lasts longer so it is more efficient and there is less delay and disruption to the public. A 90% reduction in carbon footprint has been quoted for this method.

Expanded Polystyrene Recycling

Published 2 September 2019 | No comments
Written by Jake Phillips
Categories Reduced use of single use plastics
CategoriesReduced use of single use plastics

When ENGIE was contracted to replace the cladding at Eyot House in Bermondsey, our commitment to be at the forefront of environmentally conscientious construction methods demanded a creative approach to recycling and repurposing the old expanded polystyrene (EPS) removed from the building. The existing EWI system comprised an insulation layer of expanded polystyrene (EPS) board, for which it was important…

Air Quality Top Tips and Pledges

Published 2 September 2019 | No comments
Written by Kirsty Cuthbertson
Categories Education
CategoriesEducation

Thursday 20th June was Clean Air Day 2019, the UK’s largest campaign against air pollution. Before this on Wednesday 5th June it was World Environment Day, the United Nations day for encouraging worldwide awareness and action to protect our environment, with this year’s theme focusing on air pollution. Between the two events, the Multiplex Sustainability Team posted 13 Top Tips…

Efficient Alternative to Individual Lighting Towers

Published 2 September 2019 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Adequate lighting Conserve of energy
CategoriesAdequate lighting Conserve of energy

Sites that are not on a mains electricity supply often use individual lighting towers, each powered by a single generator, to provide lighting to site compounds etc. This can result in relatively high fuel use and associated carbon emissions. Volker Fitzpatrick chose instead to install a number of second hand street lighting columns, fitted with LED lights, linked to the…

Solar Powered Noise Monitor

Published 27 August 2019 | No comments
Written by Vanessa Hilton
Categories Green/renewable energy Noise
CategoriesGreen/renewable energy Noise

In order to adequately manage and monitor noise at local sensitive receptors during the build, three noise monitors have been installed to provide real-time data at three locations. A logistical challenge was presented by the remote location required for these monitors to be placed and consequently, lack of power source. However, this was overcome through early engagement with a local…

Double Height Precast Columns

Published 27 August 2019 | No comments
Written by Ciaran Crosby
Categories Offsite construction Prefabrication
CategoriesOffsite construction Prefabrication

Ardmore have introduced the use of double-storey height, precast reinforced concrete columns which had the following benefits. Carbon footprint: With the concrete coming in precast, there is a vastly reduced number of vehicles on site, approximately 50%. Community: Now less vehicles are arriving on site, the impact on the community is greatly diminished. The public’s safety is increased with less…

Telematics

Published 5 August 2019 | No comments
Written by Jane Lees
Categories Induction and training Training plans Workforce development plans
CategoriesInduction and training Training plans Workforce development plans

The UK Government is required to achieve an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, however the National Atmospheric Emission Inventory recently highlighted that emissions produced from diesel run vehicles increased by 20% in 2016 compared to 1990 levels. The health impacts associated with diesel engines are now well known and London has introduced low emissions zones and Non-Road…

Carbon Emission Conversion

Published 22 July 2019 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Carbon reduction Environmental/sustainability policy
CategoriesCarbon reduction Environmental/sustainability policy

From October 2013, under the Companies Act 2006 (Strategic and Directors’ Reports) Regulations 2013, quoted companies are required to report their greenhouse gas emissions on an annual basis. A quoted company is a company whose shares are traded on a stock exchange, such as the London Stock Exchange. Other non-quoted companies can also voluntarily report their annual greenhouse gas emissions….

Hybrid Cherry Picker

Published 19 June 2019 | No comments
Written by Mariyana Stoyanova
Categories Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesEnergy efficient plant and equipment

As part of working towards reducing our carbon emissions and becoming carbon positive, we have replaced our standard cherry picker with a NIFTY HR21 HYBRID 4×4 MK2. Niftylift has combined an efficient Tier 4/EU Stage IIIB Diesel engine with a clean and quiet electric power pack to produce the world’s first parallel hybrid power system on a MEWP. The system…

3D Modelling to Create Formwork

Published 28 May 2019 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Prefabrication
CategoriesPrefabrication

The site had to construct just over 500 metres of diaphragm walling, which was 30 metres deep. Through 3D modelling, the site was able to arrange for prefabricated reinforcement cages to be delivered and placed in single lengths. The particularly innovative aspect was the use of 3D modelling to create formwork for each one of the steel cage panels. The…

Ecosia Search Engine

Published 28 May 2019 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Carbon offsetting
CategoriesCarbon offsetting

Not only has the site switched its default internet search engine to Ecosia on all of its computers, they have also developed this previous innovation further by using it to offset the carbon footprint generated by the measured electricity usage of the temporary site set up. Additionally, this information is displayed on a graphic chart promoting the environmental benefits of…

Using Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil as Generator Fuel

Published 28 May 2019 | No comments
Written by Tom King
Categories Biofuels Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction
CategoriesBiofuels Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction

At 21 Moorfields, we are trying to reduce our carbon footprint and minimise the disturbance to the local community who surround our central London site. Following this aim, we have decided to trial the use of a hydrogenated vegetable oil to fuel two generators on site whilst we transfer the mains power supply from low to high voltage. The ‘Green…

Environmental Performance and Report

Published 21 May 2019 | No comments
Written by Luke Smith
Categories Carbon offsetting Carbon reduction Promoting achievements Reduced use of single use plastics Reporting actual vs target performance
CategoriesCarbon offsetting Carbon reduction Promoting achievements Reduced use of single use plastics Reporting actual vs target performance

The Wellington Place 7 and 8 project team, led by Dan Miller, has shown great leadership and professionalism by using their sphere of influence to achieve the environmental targets set at the beginning of the project. Highlights Include: 59% reduction in CO2 emissions from the following measures: 100% Renewable energy electricity supply, primary and secondary lighting circuits that reduce unnecessary…

Used Coffee Grounds Fuel Logs

Published 29 April 2019 | No comments
Written by Nick Wicks
Categories Carbon offsetting
CategoriesCarbon offsetting

The UK produces 500,000 tonnes of coffee grounds per year. At Marble Arch Place, Multiplex is working with ‘Bio-Bean’ to produce clean fuel from used coffee grounds. The site’s busy office and canteen produces about 30 litres of grounds a week in special collection bins, which are then picked up on a weekly basis. This reduces greenhouse gas emissions by…

Reduced Carbon Footprint Through Design Changes

Published 15 March 2019 | No comments
Written by Michael Haydock
Categories Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon reduction

There have been a significant number of changes to design that have reduced the amount of steel and concrete used on the Bank Station Capacity Upgrade (BSCU) Project. To identify the benefits in terms of carbon savings, Dragados looked to BIM to help calculate reductions in carbon. Reductions in weight and volumes of steel and concrete were identified using BIM…

Start-Stop Technology

Published 18 February 2019 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Conserve of energy
CategoriesConserve of energy

According to the London Atmospheric Inventory, construction sites are responsible for approximately 7.5% of nitrogen oxide emissions, 8% of large particle emissions and 14.5% of fine particle emissions. The majority of these emissions derive from machinery, vehicles and construction transport, all of which are a significant contributor to air pollution. Considering how the construction industry is reliant on machinery and…

A Constructor’s Collaboration: Freight Delivery by Cargo Bike

Published 18 February 2019 | No comments
Written by Michael Barratt MBE
Categories Carbon reduction CLOCS FORS
CategoriesCarbon reduction CLOCS FORS

The Mayor of London’s Transport Strategy, published in 2018, sets out a vision for a healthier, greener and more prosperous city. The strategy makes clear that a new type of thinking is required to increase active, efficient and sustainable travel to help achieve this vision for London. The Mayor, through TfL, will work with the boroughs, businesses and the freight…

Eco Friendly Site Toilets

Published 23 November 2018 | No comments
Written by Colin Draper
Categories Toilets Water saving measures
CategoriesToilets Water saving measures

The site has been trialling a new sustainable toilet, which has a sink built in above the cistern at the back of the toilet. The water used from washing hands in the basin fills the cistern to flush the toilet. This toilet is space saving, eco-friendly, encourages hygiene and works out to be cheaper as no extra sinks are required…

Remote Controlled Electric Breaker

Published 12 November 2018 | No comments
Written by Patrick Smith
Categories Electric vehicles Energy efficient plant and equipment Green/renewable energy
CategoriesElectric vehicles Energy efficient plant and equipment Green/renewable energy

At Mace’s GPE Hanover Square Project, J Coffey Construction Ltd used a ‘Brokk 260’ remote controlled electric powered breaker to substitute a more traditional diesel powered breaker, used for breaking out concrete. Sustainability benefits include: Reduced carbon emissions – as electricity at Hanover Square is sourced from a 100% renewable supplier (Ecotricity), electrical breakers have zero carbon emissions. Reduced pollution…

Environmental Wheel

Published 12 November 2018 | No comments
Written by Catherine Barrett
Categories Education Induction and training Reduced use of single use plastics
CategoriesEducation Induction and training Reduced use of single use plastics

Day-to-day, we all have an influence on the environment we live in. Our ‘Environmental Fact Wheel’ offers interesting facts about the little things we do every day which can have an effect on the environment. We have divided the facts into five main target areas: Resources, Water, Waste, Carbon and People. Examples include: Recycling only one aluminium can saves enough…

Transporting Large Prefabricated Components using a Driverless Vehicle

Published 31 October 2018 | No comments
Written by Dominic Ward
Categories Conserve of energy Prefabrication
CategoriesConserve of energy Prefabrication

The team at Greenwich Peninsula Upper Riverside had a successful shipment of 28 pre-fabricated raised running track elements to Green Peninsula from Venice, Italy. Each element had to be transported from a barge to a local allocated storage area then eventually on to site from the storage area for installation along public highways. Transporting via seas avoided the need for…

UK’s Largest Hybrid Generator

Published 17 October 2018 | No comments
Written by Matt Brinklow
Categories Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesEnergy efficient plant and equipment

The construction of new passenger tunnels between existing platforms at Kennington Station had to be completed within a 16-week window and works were required 24/7. There was insufficient power supply available from the station and therefore a large external diesel generator was required. The generator had to be located very near to residential properties and there was concern over the…

The Solatainer

Published 24 September 2018 | No comments
Written by Jonathan Baron
Categories Conserve of energy Green/renewable energy
CategoriesConserve of energy Green/renewable energy

The Solatainer is a new innovative power source for site compounds. The unit combines solar, generator, battery and for the first time in the UK, wind to provide renewable energy for running the site. During its first month on site, we have observed a 27% reduction in the total cost and over a 87% reduction in carbon dioxide production when…

Successful Building Information Modelling

Published 6 September 2018 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Prefabrication
CategoriesPrefabrication

Offsite fabrication of building services has been utilised across the construction industry for many years. As Building Information Modelling (BIM) has grown, buildings have become more complex which has created several benefits, as well as challenges in construction. The AstraZeneca New Cambridge site project has extended the building services module construction approach to include the raised access floor area of…

Used Canteen Cooking Oil Recycled into Biofuel

Published 6 August 2018 | No comments
Written by Matt Brinklow
Categories Biofuels
CategoriesBiofuels

Used cooking oil from the site canteen is collected by a specialist company who then transform it into biodiesel. This is used for powering diesel vehicles and also for heating. Any packaging related to the cooking oil is also recycled. The collection is free of charge and the company delivers fresh cooking oil at the same time as making the…

Embedding Carbon Reduction into the Build

Published 6 October 2017 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Carbon reduction Modern methods of construction
CategoriesCarbon reduction Modern methods of construction

Environmental awareness and carbon reduction is increasingly important when tendering for projects. Contractors must demonstrate a commitment to reducing their carbon footprint. See the examples below for how Laing O’Rourke won National Grid’s first contract with carbon weighting: The contractor implemented a number of modifications to the build design to reduce material use and ensure carbon reduction. At the tender…

Hybrid Concrete Truck Emission Reductions

Published 17 August 2017 | No comments
Written by CWCL Sustainability Team
Categories Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesEnergy efficient plant and equipment

It is important to recognise that a site’s environmental impact goes well beyond the site boundary. A significant environmental impact of construction is in the production of the materials used, but it is also important to consider the impact of their transportation at both a local and wider level. Although concrete batching plants are often in reasonably close proximity to…

Compactor and Baler to Manage Waste in a CO2 Efficient Way

Published 24 July 2017 | No comments
Written by Kathryn Weatherburn
Categories Reduced use of single use plastics Waste management
CategoriesReduced use of single use plastics Waste management

There are many different drivers to reducing and eliminating waste on construction projects. A simple way of reducing waste where possible, and significantly reducing the numbers of vehicles coming to and from site from waste removal is a compactor or baler. Cardboard and plastic waste being baled not only saves space on site, but reduces costs in skips and decreases…

Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic

Published 26 June 2017 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Carbon reduction
CategoriesCarbon reduction

Tunnelling works such as those involved in the London Underground extension can pose a number of logistical concerns and safety risks. See the examples below for how one site addressed this: Used Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) in concrete invert reinforcement bases at the step plate junction. GFRP reinforcement is 75% lighter than traditional steel reinforcement. The weight reduction reduced…

Knowing your Carbon Footprint

Published 26 May 2017 | No comments
Written by Elaine Woodburn
Categories Carbon reduction Notice board Promoting achievements
CategoriesCarbon reduction Notice board Promoting achievements

When we know what our carbon footprint is then we can act. GRAHAM Construction and Low Level Waste Repository Ltd therefore calculated the carbon footprint of their Engineering, Design and Construction Framework (EDCF). It is important to the framework that once the footprint was calculated that it was displayed in a manner which was easily understandable and relevant to all…

Newton Waterproof Membrane Recycling Service

Published 12 May 2017 | No comments
Written by Daniel Billington
Categories Reduced use of single use plastics
CategoriesReduced use of single use plastics

By returning HDPE membrane off-cuts from site to Newton headquarters in Tonbridge via backloads, the material is then initially processed in-house. Working closely with the UK’s largest non-profit recycling organisation RECOUP in order to set up the necessary relationships with both a plastics reprocessor and an end-manufacturer who will use the recycled material. Newton is the first waterproofing materials supplier…

Carbon Sequestration Initiative

Published 27 April 2017 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Carbon offsetting
CategoriesCarbon offsetting

Climate change is an issue which affects us all, and construction sites must be mindful of their contribution to this process. Specifically, sites should monitor their carbon emissions and make efforts to reduce and offset these emissions where possible. See the examples below for how one site addressed this issue: Implemented a carbon sequestration initiative, which refers to carbon capture…

Carbon Footprint Reporting Model

Published 9 December 2016 | No comments
Written by Joe Walsh
Categories Carbon reduction Measurement and publication of targets and performance Monitoring and recording of resource usage
CategoriesCarbon reduction Measurement and publication of targets and performance Monitoring and recording of resource usage

Costain Skanska Joint Venture (CSJV) have an extremely detailed carbon model which is updated monthly to reflect fuel usage, electricity consumption and vehicle movement to and from site. However, where CSJV have gone over and above other site is our reporting of scope 3, i.e. embodied carbon and indirect transport. CSJV have expanded the carbon reporting model to include an…

Plant and Machinery Database

Published 4 November 2016 | No comments
Written by CCS Best Practice Hub Administrator
Categories Conserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment
CategoriesConserve of energy Energy efficient plant and equipment

Using modern and innovative equipment can improve sustainable procurement. It is therefore important to be aware what alternative working methods of equipment could be most effectively used for the job. This doesn’t just mean productivity, but also other benefits such as environmental impact, health, safety and cost saving. The example below shows how one site achieved this: The contractor has…

Being a Carbon Neutral Construction Company

Published 28 October 2016 | No comments
Written by Sharon Davies
Categories Carbon offsetting
CategoriesCarbon offsetting

Construction, housing and property group Willmott Dixon uses a lot of fuel in the course of its business. Newer plant, hybrid generators, low emission company cars and energy efficient cabins are some of the ways in which Willmott Dixon is working towards its target of halving emissions intensity by 2020 (compared with 2010). Since 2012, the company has offset its…

Construction Site Powered by PV Panels

Published 8 August 2016 | No comments
Written by Raffaella Puricelli
Categories Conserve of energy Green/renewable energy
CategoriesConserve of energy Green/renewable energy

The new build University Technical College (UTC) in Warrington will comprise a series of engineering and specialists workshops, a lecture theatre, science laboratories and general teaching spaces for up to 620 students and staff. The construction project is being powered via photovoltaic (PV) panels installed on the roof of the adjacent building – The Base – previously constructed by the…

Waste Transfer Station

Published 3 August 2016 | No comments
Written by Katja Behrendt
Categories Waste management
CategoriesWaste management

A dedicated recycling area is in place at the head office to support construction sites in segregating waste. Caged tippers transport waste from sites to the area where it is being sorted into more than twenty different waste streams. The information on tonnages is then provided to the sites on a monthly basis and displayed accordingly to further encourage re-use…

Site Energy Monitoring

Published 30 June 2016 | No comments
Written by James Low
Categories Conserve of energy Conserve of resources Inspection Monitoring and recording of resource usage
CategoriesConserve of energy Conserve of resources Inspection Monitoring and recording of resource usage

Mace’s project are using an engaging and simple to use online energy monitoring system to better manage site energy and water consumption, and contribute to reducing carbon emissions. Sub-meters have been installed across the site to improve awareness of the site equipment and zones, such as tower cranes, lighting zones and office accommodation. The system has already enabled one project…

Carbon Offsetting through the Carbon Neutral Company

Published 9 December 2015 | No comments
Written by Jack Endean
Categories Carbon offsetting
CategoriesCarbon offsetting

Carbon emissions should be monitored and reduced to help minimise pollution and protect the environment. Carbon offsetting is the reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gasses made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. Many construction companies have carbon offset their works with projects overseas which will save carbon emissions equivalent to those that they emit. Willmott…

Electric Van for the Survey Team

Published 20 October 2015 | No comments
Written by Monika De Kock
Categories Carbon reduction Electric vehicles
CategoriesCarbon reduction Electric vehicles

During the month of May the Bermondsey Survey team took delivery of a Renault Kangoo Electric Van. The van, which charges off a standard plug socket, has been a great tool in helping to reduce the team’s emissions and costs, as well as offering a greener mode of transport for all of the other travelling team members. The financial benefit against…

Close case studies

Case studies

Be inspired by those across our industry who share their story and offer advice on carbon reduction in construction.

BAM have an ambition to have a net positive impact on the environment. They believe that effective energy management is the best way to save money and should be planned as early as possible. Read their case study here.
BAM on their Exmouth Community College chose to install two temporary eco cabins while their enabling works were being completed and the site was being prepared for the main welfare cabins. Read their case study here.
BAM Nuttall have assessed the carbon savings that have occurred between the design stage and construction of the Flow Control Structure through concrete mix design. Read their case study here.
BAM Nuttall have reduced their carbon emissions by carrying out the UK’s largest single pour of Cemfree for Network Rail at Chatham Station. Read their case study here.
BAM Nuttall used low carbon concrete in the Boston barrier. Due to the complex structure, only in-situ reinforced concrete was considered. Read their case study here.
Bowmer + Kirkland has been measuring and managing its carbon footprint for 15 years in partnership with the internationally recognised Planet Mark certification scheme. Through the measurement of carbon emissions data and a specific focus on construction sites, they have successfully reduced their own carbon footprint by at least 5% year on year. Read their case study here.
Canary Wharf Group aim to raise awareness of the environmental impact from embodied carbon in construction and provide information on the initiatives taken to reduce carbon emissions through innovative methods and stakeholder collaboration. Read their case study here.
C.F Construction made a conscious and dedicated decision to improve their environmental footprint. Through this, they have implemented multiple improvements in different areas of their business, aiming to improve their environmental sustainability. Read their case study here.
Galliford Try as part of their energy reduction initiatives took the decision to use battery packs to accompany the generators that would power the site. The battery packs allow the site to utilise hybrid power and the site to be powered by battery at periods of low demand in order to reduce generator running time. Read their case study here.
John Sisk & Son are reducing their carbon footprint through promoting carbon efficiency, sustainably sourcing material, preserving heritage assets, protecting the environment and enhancing biodiversity and improving waste management through innovation and re-use/recycling. Read their case study here.
Morgan Sindall have created a 10 Tonne Carbon Challenge which is an initiative set up as part of their effort to mitigate climate change by reducing the carbon impact of what they build and how they build it. Read their case study here.
Morgan Sindall have made a significant contribution to becoming a diesel free site by switching to electric and battery powered equipment and using HVO fuel. Read their case study here.
Peabody New Homes have included the provision of efficient fossil fuel free heating and hot water in the development of new homes as this is key to decarbonisation. Read their case study here.
Rochester Bridge Trust’s journey to Net Zero began with the calculation of its carbon footprint for all bridge maintenance activities. Since April 2022, all maintenance activities on Rochester Bridge are carried out at Net Zero Carbon. Read their case study here.
St James commitment to sustainable building was seen in their White City project with a high standard of environmental management. This follows a set of group-wide environmental policies which aim to put the group at the forefront of industry sustainability. Read their case study here.
Close law and legislation

Law and legislation

The following law and legislation is relevant to helping address the issue of reducing carbon emissions.

The Climate Change Act 2008

  • This Act established a legally binding target to reduce the UK’s Green House Gas (GHG) emissions by at least 100% of 1990 levels (net zero) by 2050.
  • It provides the UK with a legal framework including a 2050 target for emissions reductions, five-yearly ‘carbon budgets’ (limits on emissions over a set time period which act as stepping stones towards the 2050 target), and the development of a climate change adaptation plan. Currently the UK is projected to fall short of the fourth and fifth carbon budgets.

The Companies Act 2006 Regulations 2013

  • This requires ‘quoted companies’ (companies listed on LSE, NSE, EEA) to report information on Greenhouse Gas emissions in their Director’s Reports.

The Companies (Directors’ Report) and Limited Liability Partnerships (Energy and Carbon Report) Regulations 2018

  • These regulations impose new obligations for what must be included in the Director’s Reports for quoted companies. Large unquoted companies and Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) must now report emissions in their director’s reports as well.
  • Large companies are classed as satisfying two of the following requirements: having a turnover of £36m or more, a balance sheet of £18m or more; and 250 or more employees.

Minimum Energy Efficiency Standard (MEES)

  • This came into force on 01/04/2018 – requires private rented residential and non-domestic property to be at a Minimum Energy Efficiency Standard Rating of E.

Climate Change Levy

  • A tax on electricity, gas and fuel oil use by business. Reduced levy rates are paid by businesses who deliver reductions in energy use in line with their sector’s climate change agreements.

Building Regulations Part L

  • Part L is a building regulation that concerns construction projects that are new, or result in the change of use of a dwelling or all other buildings in England. It sets the standards for the energy performance and carbon emissions of new and existing buildings.

Government initiatives

The Construction Sector Deal

  • This is a partnership between the government and the industry which sets out a strategy to improve the sector.
  • “This Sector Deal sets out an ambitious partnership between government and industry that aims to transform the sector’s productivity through innovative technologies and a more highly skilled workforce.”
  • Part of this deal is an aim to halve the energy use of new buildings by 2030. It also aims to make more sustainable and lower carbon buildings cheaper to build.
  • This deal sets out a 50% reduction in GHG emissions within construction by 2025.

Green Finance Strategy

  • This sets out framework for the UK to become the world’s first Net Zero Aligned Financial Centre, outlining how we will ensure market participants have the information and tools they need to align to our climate and nature goals.
  • The strategy sets out a framework for supporting technologies as they grow to commercialisation, including through the work of our public finance institutions. We also set out our next steps to grow high integrity voluntary markets including a framework for developing nature markets in the UK.

Net Zero Strategy: Build Back Greener

  • This strategy sets out policies and proposals for decarbonising all sectors of the UK economy to meet our net zero target by 2050.
Close External resources

External resources

Carbon reduction is a huge issue in the construction industry today. There are numerous organisations and initiatives committed to combatting this issue in the construction industry.

  • The Alliance for Sustainable Building Products (ASBP) is a cross sector organisation that champions the use of sustainable materials in the construction industry.
  • Bioregional are an environmental charity that champion sustainability practices. They have produced a guide for procuring reclaimed building products and materials for use in construction projects.
  • BREEAM – Science-based suite of validation and certification systems for a sustainable built environment.
  • BRE GROUP – developing science-led solutions to built environment challenges, making buildings better for people and for the environment.
  • Carbon Trust – partnering with businesses, governments and organisations around the world – helping them decarbonise and accelerate to Net Zero.
  • Centre for Industrial Energy, Materials and Products (CIE-MAP) – This organisation works closely with government and industry to conduct research that identifies all the opportunities along the product supply chain that deliver a reduction in industrial energy use.
  • The Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB) is a worldwide professional body that represents construction and property professionals who work within the built environment. They have developed an ‘action plan’ for the Government’s Carbon 2050 pledge which details what construction companies can do to reduce their CO2 emissions.
  • The Carbon Leadership Forum is a US-based collaboration of industry and academic figures who are focused on reducing embodied carbon within building materials. They have a produced a practice guide to Life Cycle Assessments.
  • Carbon Risk Real Estate Monitor (CRREM) is a tool that can help set a pathway for reducing emissions on existing buildings.
  • Future Homes Hub brings together the partnerships needed to deliver on the new homes sector’s climate and environment plan.
  • Green Construction Board (Part of Construction Leadership Council) – The Green Construction Board is a consultative Green Construction Board forum of key members of the UK construction and property industries. Its main role is to advise government on the regulatory and policy framework required in overcoming key barriers to the delivery of green buildings and infrastructure. They have produced a guidance document, detailing how to implement PAS 2080.
  • Greenhouse Gas Protocol – provides standards, guidance, tools and training for business and government to measure and manage climate-warming emissions.
  • Institution of Structural Engineers (ISE)The ISE have a ‘sustainability panel’ which promotes effective industry-wide initiatives on sustainable construction in conjunction with other construction sector bodies. They also have a Sustainability Resource Map which is an interactive PDF of recommended resources. Over 100 references have been added to the Map, with ‘Essential Resources’ expanding as expertise grows in this field.
  • Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) have a range of resources, blogs, lectures and guidance on net zero.
  • LEED – US Green building rating system
  • LETI – They have created a Climate Emergency Design Guide which covers 5 key areas: operational energy, embodied carbon, the future of heat, demand response and data disclosure.
  • NetRegs provide environmental guidance for businesses in Northern Ireland and Scotland and have created resources on carbon reduction and efficiency.
  • RICS Whole Life Carbon Assessment Professional Statement is the industry-accepted methodology for calculation carbon emissions across an asset’s lifecycle.
  • Supply Chain Sustainability School – a free learning environment, upskilling those working within, or aspiring to work within, the built environment sector. They have a focus on Energy and Carbon which includes a free Carbon Calculator aims to support supply chains with calculating their greenhouse gas emissions, and provides clients with a view of emissions embedded in their supply chains.
  • Sustainable Traditional Building Alliance (STBA) – The Sustainable Traditional Buildings Alliance is a collaboration of organisations that acts as a forum for sustaining and improving traditional buildings.
  • The Green Register – The Green Register is an independent, self-funded and not-for-profit organisation whose principal goal is to promote sustainable building practices across all disciplines of the construction industry.
  • UK Green Building Council (UKGBC) membership-led industry network transforming the sustainability of the built environment. They have a number of resources for the industry including:
    • Solutions Library – A library of practical, real-world solutions for a variety of challenges faced in the built environment.
    • Case Studies Library – Best practice, real-world examples of climate action and innovation in the built environment.
    • Climate Change Mitigation – A range of resources and guidance on climate change mitigation.
    • Bitesize Learning Guides – A growing suite of introductory-level sustainability resources designed to build knowledge and confidence across industry on key sustainability topics.
    • Net Zero Whole Life Carbon Roadmap – The Roadmap was launched at the beginning of a crucial decade for climate action, with the need for our industry to decarbonise clearer than ever and provides a common vision for achieving net zero carbon in the construction, operation and demolition of buildings and infrastructure.
  • Waste and Resource Action Program (WRAP)a climate action NGO working around the globe to tackle the causes of the climate crisis and give the planet a sustainable future.
  • Zero Waste Scotland have a construction resource library which is a central source of information around policy, regulation, good practice, implementation, training, case studies, articles, publications and presentations.

References

  • The Scheme has sourced information from across the construction industry as well as organisations and studies from the across the world. View these references here.
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